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Solemn Music Notes

Chapter 1

  1. ‘The unsurpassed glory of the baroque violin’: description of Rachel Podger by The Times of London, cited on her website.
  2. Podger’s selections were on Inside Music, broadcast on 21 March 2020.
  3. A 40,000-year-old vulture-bone flute was found at Hohle Fels in southern Germany in 2008, James Owen, National Geographic, 24 June 2009. Carvings of vultures have been found at Potbelly Hill (Gobekli Tepe) in south-eastern Turkey at the world’s so far oldest known temple, dated to 11,000 year or so ago, Andrew Curry, Smithsonian Magazine, November 2008.
  4. The Middle Ages’ as a category first appeared in 1469 in a Latin text as ‘media tempestas’ or ‘The Middle Season’. Wikipedia, The Middle Ages, note A.
  5. The European ‘Enlightenment’ started with the death of Louis XIV in 1715 according to French historians. Wikipedia, Age of Enlightenment.
  6. Beccaria’s publication Dei Delitti e Delle Pene or On Crimes and Punishment: we’ll come back to it later, and to the Coffee House Group of Milan who agreed with him.
  7. Dei Delitti e Delle Pene was ‘the first full-scale work to tackle criminal reform’. Wikipedia, Cesare Beccaria.
  8. What Beccaria saw, Lorenzo Zucca. The First Socialist, aeon.co/essays.
  9. The leap of ideas from 4,094 miles away: distance in miles between Milan and Philadelphia. google.com.
  10. The counter-tenor Philippe Jaroussky is also described as a ‘sopranist’.
  11. Voices of Music the most popular early music ensemble in the USA: so, it says on its home page. The troupe is a 501 (c) (3) organisation, that is, a not-for-profit enterprise.
  12. Hall’s book was mentioned on BBC radio 3 Music Matters.
  13. The French Revolution collapsed in 1804 when Napoleon declared himself Emperor of the French.
  14. Louis Philippe belonged to a junior branch of the French Royal Family which had hated Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette and been hated in return.